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Full text of "Ohio University bulletin, August 1895"

Ohio University Bulletin. 

Published in July, 1895. 



Psychology in Education. 

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OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



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Ohio University Bulletin. 



Volume II. 



ATHENS, OHIO, AUGUST, 1895. 



Number 3. 



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PAGE. 

Consciousness and Will in Their Rela- 
tion TO Culture and Character, . 3 

Editorial Notes, 9 

Personal Notes, 15 

Book Notices 17 



CONSCIOUSNESS AND WILL IN THEIR 

RELATION TO CULTURE AND 

CHARACTER. 



By C. S. COLER ('S3), M. S., Principal Sandusky Iligli 
School. 



"A cultivated man, wise to know and bold to perform, is 
the end for which nature works."' — Kmerson, 

Man's truest greatness lies within him- 
self. 

The soul, like the flower, is destined to 
growth and development. 

Like the flower, also, it gathers its 
beauty and fragrance from sources of 
which we are little aware. Both are sus- 
ceptible of culture. 

Culture in its truest sense differs from 
education, implying as it does greater 
development of the sensibilities and 
greater assimilation of knowledge. 

Time, leisure, manners, society, are all 
necessary to culture. 

The purpose of education is to make 
man useful. 

The purpose of culture is to make man 
beautiful. 

The prayer of Socrates was, "Grant, oh 
gracious gods, that I may be beautiful 
within ! " 

True culture regards the soul as the 
grandest of all created things. 

For the soul all things exist. For it 
stars hold their courses and systems re- 



volve in obedience to law. For it the uni- 
verse was created and the Son of Man 
came to earth to teach the ways of God. 

The dew-drop and the ocean, the atom 
and the world, science, art, history, philos- 
ophy, poetry, religion, all contribute to 
the great work of culture. 

Culture must, therefore, be regarded as 
the chief end of human life. 

The man of true culture is a man in all 
his faculties and powers. 

He has perception, memory, imagina- 
tion, reason, conscience, affection, will, — 
all these, fresh, vigorous, and active, go to 
make up a genial spirit of intellectual life 
which animates his every act. 

His character is not a passive thing for 
outward circumstances to shape and 
modify. 

Give such a man the most common 
material and out of it he will rear a sub- 
lime structure. 

Give him but ordinary advantages and 
he will, like Cromwell, or Luther, bring 
about a revolution, or organize an institu- 
tion that shall stand for ages. 

The problem of civilization has been to 
reach such a state of society as would 
serve for the highest good of the individ- 
ual and at the same time for the highest 
good of the community at large. 

Civilization at the present time is in 
many ways antagonistic to the highest 
development of the individual. 

Character is overlooked. Fashion and 
custom rule supreme. The individual is 
sacrificed for the good of society, — if good 
it may be called. 

Not by looking at what society wants, 
but by a deep and careful study of what 
our own nature wants are we developed to 
the highest degree. 

"Every brave heart," says Emerson, 
" must treat society as a child and not 
allow it to dictate." 

Accuracy and acuteness of perception, 
strength and readiness of memory, healthy 
and comprehensive imagination, ability to 
reason, breadth and activity of sensibility, 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



and power to will, — these are some of the 
things to be aimed at in every system of 
true culture. 

CONSCIOUSNESS. 

But while these faculties of mind and 
powers of soul are being strengthened and 
invigorated, the consciousness that pre- 
sides over them must also receive atten- 
tion. 

No education is complete without the 
proper development of consciousness. 

There is, of course, such a thing as "ab- 
normal " consciousness, and some writers 
go so far as to discourage the develop- 
ment of consciousness. 

They say : 

" The centipede was happy quite, 
Until the toad for fun, 

Said, ' Pray which foot comes after which? ' 
This worked her mind to such a pitch, 
She lay distracted in the ditch. 
Considering how to run." 

Another writer says : " Only instinctive 
action is swift, sure, and firm." 

We grant that the best action of both 
soul and body is unconscious action. 

But it comes to be unconscious action 
largely by practice and repetition. 

It may be truly said of consciousness — 

"A little learning is a dangerous thing." 
We need to 
" Drink deep of the Pierian spring." 

Consciousness is the power of the soul 
to know (1) its own existence, (2) its own 
relations, (3) its own acts and states. 

It is an infallible instinct of the soul 
itself, the action of which is superior to 
all its other fundamental exercises. It is 
the inner light, revealing the phenomena 
of the inner world just as perception re- 
veals the phenomena of the external 
world. 

Dr. Hopkins says: " Consciousness is 
the knowledge, by the mind, of itself as the 
permanent and individual subject of its 
own operations." 

He further says of consciousness that it 
is universal, that it is not a faculty, that it^ 
does not exist alone, that it is infallible, 
that it is not under the control of the will, 
and that its office is to bind all the opera- 
tions of mind into unity. 

It is the basis of modern philosophical 
study. 

" I think," says Descartes, "therefore I 
am." We thus see that the nature of con- 



sciousness is such as to make it an essen- 
tial factor in the development of all the 
fundamental operations of mind and soul. 

In all true culture the nature and im- 
portance of consciousness should be 
brought out clearly and distinctly, and its 
rightful authority should be recognized. 

Here it is that we meet with one of the 
greatest defects of our popular education. 
The power of spiritual nature is wanting. 
Knowledge stops short of its end. 

Experience touches only the surface. 
The depths of vitality of the soul are not 
reached. 

Men become shrewd, sharp, and com- 
petent, but it is all at the expense of the 
self-searching power, of deep-seated con- 
sciousness, of genuine culture. 

"The object of education," says Bishop 
Spalding, " is to make men good and 
reasonable, not to make them smart and 
eager for possession and indulgence." 

The man of true culture is more than a 
highly polished piece of apparatus. 

Facility and force can not satisfy his 
demands. 

Knowing the power of prejudice, the 
fallaciousness of reason and of conscience, 
he .carries a large, genial, purified heart 
into every pursuit of life. 

Such a man is not a thinking machine, 
but a thinking soul. 

He scorns any proposal whose object is 
simply to coin his ability and his powers 
into gold. 

His influence for good is felt wherever 
he moves. 

He has a manly self-reliance and heeds 
not siren voices that would turn him from 
his course. 

The music of his own soul outrivals the 
sweetest notes that Orpheus ever sung. 

He knows 

" What and how great the virtue and the art. 
To live on little with a cheerful heart." 

He feels 

" What nothing earthly gives nor can destroy. 
The soul's calm sunshine and the heart-felt joy." 

For the great work of culture we are 
everywhere surrounded with the amplest 
means. 

Emerson says : " Every object of na- 
ture serves for use, for beauty, for lan- 
guage, or for discipline." 

By intelligent labor the materials and 
forces of nature are made still more useful 
to man. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



Wind and water serve him. The light- 
ning of the heavens is made obedient to 
his touch. The stars guide his course, and 
at every step of his progress he avails 
himself of a yet greater agency, a more 
hidden law, or a more subtle force, to aid 
him in executing his earthly sovereignity. 

(Only yesterday I saw an invention for 
collecting the rays of sunshine and con- 
verting them into electricity to be stored 
in batteries for use as heat, light and 
power.) 

Man changes the forest trees into a 
habitation of beauty. He polishes the 
rude stones and forms them into monu- 
ments to commemorate his deeds. 

He touches the canvass and makes it 
glow with the forms of passing sweetness. 

With his magical hand he produces 
sounds that rival the "music of the 
spheres." 

By his ever-contriving ingenuity he 
transforms the materials of nature and 
multiplies wonders more rapidly than 
commerce can diffuse them. 

" But man cannot live by bread alone." 

The growth of consciousness is worth 
more than the maturing of intellect for 
merely utilitarian ends. 

To be a man in the hush of the soul, in 
the light of one's own consciousness, — 
this is a consummation more desirable 
than the achievement of wealth or fame. 

Culture brings this possibility within 
reach of every one. 

In a degree it makes man master of his 
fate, and enables him, as the poet says, 
" To build a new life on a ruined life. 

To make the future fairer than the past, 

And make the past appear a troubled dream." 

For in the hour of thoughtful medita- 
tion, of earnest self-searching, man may 
experience a change within himself that is 
beyond his power of comprehension, and, 
like Bunyan of old, walk forth among his 
fellow men a more impressive wonder 
than the whole material world can show. 

" For man indeed, must know, 
There is but little here below. 
Except what in himself is found " 

Swedenborg was wont to say that every 
person creates his own heaven or hell. 
Milton expresses the same thought thus: 
" The soul is its own place. 
And contains a heaven in itself, 
Or in itself a hell." 



Spenser says : 

" So every spirit, as it is most pure. 
And hath in it the more of heavenly light, 
So it the fairer body doth procure 
To habit in, and it more fairly dight. 
With cheerful grace and amiable sight. 
For, of the soul the body form doth take, 
For soul is form, and doth the body make." 

And another : 
" Every soul builds for itself a house. 
And beyond its house a world. 
And beyond its world a heaven." 

WILL POWER. 

But consciousness of itself is not enough 
to effect the great work of culture. 

There must also be a resolute and un- 
yielding force of will calmly and patiently 
put forth. 

Hardship must be endured ; antago- 
nistic circumstances must be encountered ; 
the powers of mind must be directed ; the 
whole moral nature must be subdued and 
brought under control. 

Just as " there is no gold-mine country 
that is traversed by good roads," so in the 
work of culture the way is not always 
smooth. 

The person who would attain to true 
culture must fortify himself against dis- 
couragement and defeat. 

Obstacles must be encountered ; even 
sorrow and suffering must be experienced, 
for without these no discipline can be 
complete. 

The aim of true culture is to develop 
character in the truest and broadest sense 
of the word. 

Character when thus considered does 
not stop with the individual, but includes 
man in his relation to his fellow man and 
to the universe in which he lives. 

The most important factor of character 
is the Will. The greatest force in the 
world is man, and one of the most irresist- 
ible forces in man is his will. 

When the brow is knit, when the teeth 
are shut, when the hand is clenched, when 
the soul gathers its strength together and 
makes the final resolution to accomplish 
some noble deed, then it is that mountains 
sink into mole-hills and man becomes in- 
deed the vicegerent of God. 

The world stands as it is today because 
of a few such resolutions, made and car- 
ried out. 

Science and art would be mere fanciful 
dreams if the strong will did not execute 
their conceptions and designs. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



It is thus that the dreams and specula- 
tions of one age become the realities of 
the next. 

It is due to the strong will that the new 
worlds have been discovered, that conti- 
nents have been spanned by wire and rail, 
and that we talk with persons across the 
sea almost as readily as with our neighbors 
across the street. 

In war the victory has almost invariably 
fallen to the leaders of strongest will. 

Caesar, Hannibal, Napoleon, Washing- 
ton, Grant, are examples of what deter- 
mination and perseverance can accom- 
plish. 

Politics is but little more than a war of 
wills. 

And thus we might go on from the 
greatest to the most trivial affairs of life, 
and everywhere we should see that suc- 
cess remains for the persons who can will. 

The strong will is of the greatest im- 
portance in forming character also. 

Bad habits must be broken up. 

Good resolutions must be carried out. 
In short, it is the strong will, kept well in 
hand, that gives self-control, self-respect, 
and dignity and strength of character. 

But the influence of the will does not 
stop here. 

It reaches down to conduct. 

It is able to exert a stronger influence 
over the body than any other powers of 
the soul. Many persons die because they 
do not will to live. What would Napoleon 
have cared for a scratch on the hand or 
the loss of a finger ? 

The strong will triumphs over difficulty 
and defeat. We recall how Demosthenes 
stammered and failed in his first efforts as 
an orator, but how he finally carried 
everything before him. 

Garrison was not able to command at- 
tention when he began his great work, but 
he said, " I zviUhe. heard !" and we know 
the result. 

When Disraeli, the Jew, first spoke in 
the English House of Commons, he was 
laughed at and howled into silence. He 
calmly said, " The time will come when 
you will hear me ! " And he made his 
word good. 

At the time of the throwing of a bomb 
in the French Chamber of Deputies 
(which occurred about two years ago), 
while the room was filled with smoke, and 
the groans of the wounded were heard 
above everything else, the President calm- 
ly arose and said, " Gentlemen, this ses- 



sion continues. It would not be to the 
dignity of France if such an affair as this 
should disturb our deliberations. We will 
hear from the next speaker ! " 

The will also has the controlling influ- 
ence over all the other powers of the soul. 
The intellect with its faculties of percep- 
tion, of representation, of elaboration ; 
the sensibilities, — emotions, appetites, af- 
fections and desires, — all these may be 
made subservient to the will. 

All writers on ethical and psychological 
subjects recognize the importance of will 
power in directing and controlling the 
perceptive and intellectual faculties. 

Attention is almost wholly dependent 
upon the will. We see for the most part 
what we will to see. We hear for the 
most part what we will to hear. We taste 
for the most part what we will to taste. 

In like manner also the representative 
powers of intellect, — fantasy, memory, 
imagination, are all subject to the will, 
both as to the object to which they are 
directed and the duration and intensity 
with which they act. 

This is true to a very limited e.xtent of 
fantasy, to a greater extent of memory, 
and to a much greater extent of imagina- 
tion. 

The elaborative faculty of mind is also 
subject to the will. 

Newton tells us that the great work he 
accomplished was due to self-denial, con- 
centration and long-continued effort. But 
all of these things depend upon will 
power. 

Edison frequently locks himself in a 
room in his laboratory and resolves not to 
eat or sleep till he has solved some diffi- 
cult problem. 

Boswell reports Dr. Johnson as saying 
that a man can write well at any time "if 
he will but set himself doggedly about it." 

Bishop Butler, Wordsworth, Carlyle, and 
Kant controlled their thoughts largely by 
controlling, what were to them, the circum- 
stances necessary to thinking. 

But it is in relation to sensibility that 
the will is of greatest importance in effect- 
ing culture. 

It is in the realm of sensibility also that 
consciousness and will power are brought 
most closely together. 

Whether the appetite for strong drink 
or for narcotics shall characterize or con- 
trol the individual depends upon his power 
of will. And so with all appetites. 

The desires, too, are subject to the will 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



both as to the object desired and the in- 
tensity with which they are exercised. 
We are warned against covetousness, in- 
ordinate ambition, vanity, selfishness; 
we are exhorted to be industrious, self- 
sacrificing, generous, and this, on the 
ground that these characteristics are 
largely a matter of choice with ourselves. 

The will has the controlling influence 
over the affections also. 

Love of kindred, love of country, love 
of humanity, gratitude, sympathy, pity, 
are all to be cultivated and made a part 
of our very being. 

On the other hand, anger, resentment, 
revenge, jealousy, ingratitude, selfishness, 
are to be put down and cast out so that 
the soul may know them no more. 

This, too, must be done by the will, if 
not directly, then indirectly, by placing the 
soul in such attitude to some other influ- 
ence that the desired result may follow. 

Praise for performing, or censure for not 
performing this important work of culture 
in relation to the affections goes to show 
that it is dependent upon the free will of 
the individual. 

The emotions, beauty, grandeur, sublim- 
ity, cheerfulness, happiness, joy, and even 
conscience, are largely under the control 
of the will, and hence enter into the great 
work of culture. 

In considering these various manifesta- 
tions of sensibility and their dependence 
upon the will, it should be borne in mind 
that although some of them may not of 
themselves be subject to the will to any 
great extent, it is within the power of the 
will very largely to control the circum- 
stances upon which they all depend. 

Although consciousness is not under the 
control of the will, as has been said, yet 
the conditions necessary for the exercise 
and development of consciousness are in 
a great measure subject to the will, and 
hence it is that in the work of culture con- 
sciousness and will are the most essential 
factors. 

CHARACTER. 

The result of culture is character. Gar- 
field used to say, that character is the, 
joint product of nature and nurture. We 
grant this to be true, but of the two ele- 
ments, nature and nurture, nurture is the 
more important. 

Happy may he be who is born well. 
But thrice happy is he who has subdued 



his own nature and built for himself a 
noble character. 

"There is no thing we cannot overcome ; 
Say not thy evil instinct is inherited. 
Or that some trait inborn 
Makes thy whole life forlorn 
And calls down punishment that is not merited." 

" Pry up thy faults with this great power, Will ! 
However deeply bedded in posterity, 
However firmly set, 
I tell thee firmer yet 

Is that vast power that comes from truth's 
immensity." 

H. W. IV. 

Indecision, vacillation, stupidity, indif- 
ference, are for the most part the result 
of a weak will, and may, if treated in due 
time and manner, be largely overcome. 

Self-reliance, honesty, truthfulness, 
energy, enthusiasm, pluck, perseverance, 
resignation, faith — all of these essential 
elements of character are dependent upon 
the will, as a little consideration will 
show. 

The word enthusiasm, for instance, _ 
originally meant, "possessed of, or by a 
god." 

Holmes says: "Faith in something 
and enthusiasm for something is what 
makes life worth living." 

We all know that enthusiasm is largely 
under the control of the will. Many per- 
sons fail in the enterprises of life for lack 
of enthusiasm, while others of much less 
ability succeed because of it. 

Mere bustle is not enthusiasm. The 
best kind of enthusiasm is that which 
acts quietly and shows itself by its results. 

Industry, too, is largely dependent upon 
the will. It is not natural for most peo- 
ple to like hard work. But by being 
trained to it from youth up, hard work 
may become a sort of second nature. 
Dr. Johnson used to say of himself that 
he was naturally lazy, and that whatever 
he had accomplished, he had done by 
force of will. Something like this is true 
of every one. Work means effort, and 
will power is necessary to effort. 

One of the noblest forms of will power 
is courage. Courage dares to do some- 
thing. It takes risks. It rises to emer- 
gencies. It consults neither priests nor 
prophets. It obeys neither fashion nor 
custom. It bows to the dictates of 
neither monarchs nor nobles. It stands 
alone, a law unto itself, and is its own 
reward. 



8 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



Reflection, or self-examination, is also 
dependent upon the will. Reflection is 
the field where judgment, consciousness, 
will, and conscience meet for conference. 
Some of the most successful men of 
whom history gives an account have made 
it a rule to sleep over every matter of 
importance. Reflection is the great pre- 
ventive of regret and remorse. 

It is the scholar's companion. Emer- 
son says : " The life of the scholar 
should be checkered by solitude. It is 
the safeguard of mediocrity. It is to 
genius the cold, obscure shelter where 
moult the wings which will bear it farther 
than suns and stars." 

CONCLUSION. 

We thus see that both culture and char- 
acter are developed, for the most part, 
from within. They have to do with the 
soul, with its relations, its acts, its states, 
its powers, its possibilities. 

But while culture holds all things subor- 
dinate to the soul, it needs the presence 
and the power of consciousness to give it 
life and depth. 

The culture of intellect- that ends in 
intellect is but a fleeting good. The great 
fountain of truth is in sensibility. 

" It is the heart, and not the brain, 
That to the highest doth attain ; 
And he who foUoweth love's behest, 
Far excelleth all the rest." 

Longfellow says also : 

" Feeling is deep and still ; and the world that 

Floats on the surface 
Is as the tossing buoy that betrays where the 

Anchor is hidden, 
Therefore trust to thy heart, and to what the 

World calls illusions." 

Too much of our education, so-called, 
touches only the surface. A book is 
mere paper unless it enters character. 

Science, art, philosophy, poetry, relig- 
ion, are mere childish amusements unless 
they enlarge and ennoble the soul. 

It is by a careful study of the growth 
and phenomena of the soul as revealed 
by consciousness, and by wise and deter- 
mined force of will, that we become mas- 
ters of ourselves and of the powers we 
possess. 

Our public school system is a noble 
institution. But does it not fail in this 
matter of developing consciousness and 
the power of will ? 



Does not the rapidity with which pupils 
are taken from one branch of study to 
another tend to destroy depth of con- 
sciousness and cultivate the habit of shal- 
lowness and of sham ? 

Do not the " aids " and artificial " meth- 
ods of teaching" leave but little for the 
child to do for himself, and thus deprive 
him of the opportunity and means of 
developing will power and of forming 
desirable traits of character ? 

Nature's method of culture is to 
address the whole being of man. She 
does not remove all difficulties. She 
throws us upon our own responsibilities. 
She appeals to the individual. She is no 
separatist. Where she offers poetry there 
she offers philosophy. On the records of 
the past she has written the prophecy of 
the future. She is no respecter of per- 
sons. Sunshine and shower fall alike 
upon rich and poor, upon just and unjust. 

The rudest peasant may drink deeper 
at her fountain than the most pretentious 
scholar. 

The Maid of Orleans puts to shame the 
most gallant Generals. The rugged rail- 
splitter becomes the leader of a great 
Nation. 

The news boy, Edison, self-taught and 
self-maintained, outstrips the college 
graduate. 

Nature loves completeness. She does 
not dote on specialties. Her aim is to 
build up a force of character that may 
manifest itself through any faculty, flow 
out in any channel, and reach any end 
that may be desired. 

True culture comes from following the 
laws of nature as revealed by observation, 
by reason, and by consciousness. 

" Some place the bliss in action, some in ease. 
Those call it pleasure, and contentment these ; 
Take Nature's path and mad opinion's leave. 
All states may reach it and all heads conceive, 
Observe her goods, in no extremes they dwell. 
It needs but thinking right and meaning well.'' 

—Pope. 

Culture should be the aim of every 
life. For as Sir William Hamilton truly 
says : 

"Unless above himself 
He can erect himself. 
How low a thing is man ! " 

But when brought up to the highest 
and best to which he is capable of becom- 
ing, we may, with Shakespeare, say : 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



" What a piece of work is man ! 
How noble in reason ! 
How infinite in faculties ! 
In form and moving, how express 
And admirable ! 
In action, how like an angel ! 
In apprehension, how like a God ! " 

Through culture comes the only true 
good, the only lasting happiness. Our 
study then should be to get at the heart 
of things and not be content with out- 
ward forms. For us, nothing is really 
true until it has passed through intellect 
and penetrated the soul. 

Nothing from without becomes a power 
within till it blends itself with the moral 
majesty of our being. 

There is a pleasure that comes to the 
tiller of the soil as he looks over his fields 
of grain and grazing herds and realizes 
that it is by his own toil that they have 
been produced. 

There is a pleasure for the architect as 
he looks upon the finished structure of 
his own hands. 

There is a pleasure for the artist as he 
puts the finishing stroke on the piece of 
work before him, well knowing that it is 
good. 

There is a pleasure for the scientist as 
he unfolds some hidden truth in the 
realms of the material world. 

There is a pleasure for the author who 
has completed his masterpiece and finds 
that it meets with the approval of the 
world. 

There is yet a greater pleasure for the 
person who has built up for himself a 
noble character and wisely and prudently 
improved every talent that was within his 
power. 

For the great work of culture the whole 
universe is accessible to every mind. 

Earth, air, water, the sky above us, the 
grass beneath our feet, all are symbols of 
higher and better things. 

The history of the past, the activity of 
the present, the infinite faculties of the 
mind, the finer sensibilities of the soul, 
the hopes we have for the future — all 
prompt us to a life of culture and of 
noble action. 

But as Longfellow truly says : 

"The longing for ignoble things ; 
The strife for triumph more than truth ; 
The hardening of the heart that brings 
Irreverence for the dreams of youth ; 
All these must first be trodden down 
Beneath our feet, if we would gain. 
In the bright fields of fair renown, 
The right of eminent domain." 



The Ohio University Commencement 
this year has created more than ordinary 
interest. Alumni and visitors began to 
reach Athens on Saturday, June 22d. On 
Sabbath morning Commencement exer- 
cises began with President Super's bacca- 
laureate address. The exercises were held 
in the City Hall, all the churches adjourn- 
ing to listen to the address. Dr. Super, 
in a profoundly philosophical discourse, 
discussed some of the leading problems 
of the day with an idea of their solution. 
It was an able handling of educational 
questions. Sabbath evening, Dr Henry 
A. Buttz, president of Drew Theological 
Seminary, Madison, N. J., preached the 
annual sermon in the Methodist Church. 
Dr. Buttz is too well known in Church cir- 
cles to need further introduction. He 
chose for his theme, " A True Life is the 
Test of True Learning." It was a beau- 
tiful and sympathetic appeal, establishing 
a Scriptural basis for the highest charac- 
ter and the noblest achievement. Every 
one felt that his presence was inspiring 
and beneficial. 

On Monday evening was held the an- 
nual contest of the Athenian, Philomathe- 
an, and Adelphian Societies. The judges 
were Professor F. VV. Shepardson, Chica- 
go, 111.; Junius E. Beal, Ann Arbor, Mich.;- 
Hon. W. F. Trickett, Carlisle, Pa., on 
thought and composition ; and Rev. W. 
E. dArgent, Gallipolis, O.; Hon. S. H. 
Hurst, Chillicothe, Ohio; Waltman Barbe,. 
Parkersburg, W. Va., on delivery. Asso- 
ciate Professor Catherine A. Findley 
acted as chairman for the occasion. The 
winning contestants were Charles M. 
Copeland, Athenian essayist ; W. K. 
Greenbank, Athenian debater ; and Sam- 
uel Half, Philomathean orator. In points, 
the victory was declared in favor of the 
Athenians. It was one of the most in- 
teresting contests that has ever been 
held. 

On Tuesday evening the eighth annual 
pedagogical Commencement was celebra- 
ted. Fannie C. Bean, Margaret A. Dick 
and J. Chase Dovvd received short peda- 
gogical certificates, while Chas. W. Cook- 
son and U. M. McCaughey were granted 
the degree of B. Ped. After the exercises 
the alumni banqueted at College Hall, 
where Miss Margaret Boyd, the first 
woman graduate, presided. The banquet 



10 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



closed with the usual amount of toasting. 

The next morning, at the business-meet- 
ing, the Alumni Association elected the 
following officers : President, Miss Lilli- 
an E. Michael ; vice-president, Herbert R. 
McVay ; secretary, B. O. Higley ; treas- 
urer, H. E. Dickason. L. M. Jewett, Eli 
Dunkle, D. J. Evans, E. J. Jones and T. 
R. Biddle constitute the Executive Com- 
mittee. More enthusiasm than ever was 
manifested. 

On Wednesday the trustees held their 
annual meeting. Plans for a new Ladies' 
Hall were accepted. This provides for a 
large, three-story, brick building, elegant- 
ly equipped, to be used as a dormitory 
and boarding-place for the ladies. When 
completed, in September, it will be one of 
the finest buildings in the town. Professor 
H. M. Conaway was given leave of absence 
for a year to attend Columbia University, 
where he holds a scholarship in History. 
Mr. Clyde Brown, member of the senior 
class, was employed as a member of the 
faculty for the following year. Honorary 
degrees were conferred as follows : A. M. 
on L. D. Bonebrake, of Mt. Vernon, and 
on A. M. Post, a judge of Supreme Court 
of Nebraska ; L. H. D. on Superintendent 
E. S. Cox, of Sidney ; D. D. on F. S. Da- 
vis, of Zanesville ; A. B. Carver, of Yonk- 
ers. Nearly every member of the Board 
was present and remained for the gradua- 
ting exercises the next day. Wednesday 
evening a powerful address on "Socrates 
and the Moderns" was delivered in the 
City Hall by Bishop Samuel Fallows, of 
Chicago. On Thursday morning the col- 
lege Commencement was held in the City 
Hall. The degree of B. A. was conferred 
upon five members of the class ; B. Ph. on 
four ; B. Ped. on three ; B. S. on four. 
Two former students and a post-graduate 
from the University of Missouri received 
the degree of M. S. The speeches of the 
graduates were of an exceptionally high 
order in thought, composition, and deliv- 
ery. It was one of the best classes that 
has left the University. Commencement 
week would not be full were not some- 
thing said about the fraternity reunions 
and banquets. First, Hon. C. H. Gros- 
venor opened his elegant home to the 
Phi Delta Pi's, the ladies' fraternity. On 
Friday evening, June 21st, the Delta Tau 
Delta Fraternity banqueted at Hotel 
Berry. Major C. H. Townsend, recently 
elected G. A. R. Commander for the Ohio 
Encampment, acted as toastmaster. The 



members and their guests spent a most 
delightful evening. On Monday evening 
the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity held their 
banquet at Hotel Berry. There was a 
large and enthusiastic attendance. Music 
was furnished by the Phi Sextette, with 
Newman Bennett as soloist. At the ban- 
quet table Mr. Wm. E. Bundy, of Cincin- 
nati, presided as toastmaster. Among the 
guests were the Hon. James M. Tripp, of 
Jackson ; Dr. J. E. Brown, of Columbus ; 
Hon. Charles H. Grosvenor, of Athens ; 
Hon. Lucien J. Fenton, of Winchester ; 
Hon. V. C. Lowry, of Logan ; Rev. S. F. 
McKim, of State Center, Iowa, and Pro- 
fessor Wm. M. Stine, of Armour Institute, 
Chicago. 

On Wednesday evening, Mr. and Mrs. 
J. D. Brown opened their elegant home to 
the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, Mr. Brown 
being a member. After the address in the 
City Hall, about thirty couples repaired to 
the place of the banquet. Soon the large 
and enthusiastic company were served 
with an elegant niemt, prepared by caterer 
Berry. The usual after-dinner speeches 
were delivered. Professor Willis Bough- 
ton acted as toastmaster. Professor H. 
M. Conaway responded to the toast of 
" Beta Kappa." Mr. D. H. Thomas fol- 
lowed with a brief speech on " The Beta 
Student." The Hon. G. W. Boyce not 
being able to be present, his toast, "The 
Beta Brother," was responded to by L. M. 
Jewett. Mr. L. G. Worstell followed with 
"The Beta as a Citizen." Then all were 
charmed with the stirring words of Dr. D. 
H. Moore, in response to the sentiment, 
" Our Strong Band Shall Never be 
Broken." The evening was most delight- 
fully spent. 

Mr. Boyce and Dr. Earl Cranston, both 
of Cincinnati, and members of this frater- 
nity, were present at other exercises of 
Commencement. The whole week will be 
remembered as one of the most pleasant 
Commencements in the history of the Ohio 
University. 

The music of the entire week was charm- 
ing, and was furnished by the department. 
Next year Miss Sara Stinson, who has 
spent the past year in Paris, will resume 
her work as instructor in Art ; and a new 
member will be added to the faculty, 
probably a graduate of Yale. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



11 



The General Programme of the Com- 
mencement Exercises is as follows : 

SUNDAY, JUNE 23. 

10:30 a. m, — Baccalaureate Address — President Super. 

7:00 P. M.— Annual Sermon— Henry A. Buttz, D. D., LL. 
D., President of Drew Theological Seminary, Madi- 
son, N. J. 

MONDAY, JUNE 24. 

7:30 p. M. — Annual Contest of the Literary Societies — Adel- 
phia, Athenian and Philomathean. 

TUESDAY, JUNE 2S. 

7:30 p. M. — Alumni Exercises and Concert, followed by 
Banquet. 

( WEDNESDAY, JUNE 26. 

10:00 A. M. — Commencement Exercises of the Pedagogical 
Department. 

2:00 p. M. — Meeting of Board of Trustees. 

8.00 p. M. — Annual Address by the Rt. Rev. Samuel Fal- 
lows, D. D., LL. D., of Chicago. 

THURSDAY, JUNE 27. 

9:30 a. m. — Commencement Exercises of the Collegiate De- 
partment. 

All these exercises are public except the session of the 
Board of Trustees. 

Below are the Programmes for Com- 
mencement Days. 

Eighth Annual Commencement 
OF the 

Pedagogical Department. 

JUNE 24, 7:30 p. m. 

a. Andante ; b. Allegro ; Symphony No. 3, Haydn. — The 
Misses Grace Gist, Florence Craig, Grace 
Reah and Bertha PIoover. 

An Outlook — Fannie C. Bean, 

Crises — Margaret A. Dick. 

A Geometrical Simile — ^J. Chase Dowd. 

Seng Without Words, No, 19, Mendelssohn — Miss Grace 
Gist. 

The following speakers are transferred from Thursday's 
programme : 

The Search for Truth — Pascal A. Bright, 
Garibaldi — William P. Collier. 
Summer Night, Thomas — Miss Madge Buck. 
Is Our Education Sufficiently Progressive? — Charles W. 

Cookson. 
The Poet's Mission — Frank C. Schofield. 
Boat Song, Bendel — Miss Grace Reah. 
The Aryan — R.\LPH C Super. 
Presentation of Diplomas. 
Annie Laurie (Ladies' Quartette) — The Misses Grace 

Gist, Florence Craig, Madge Buck and Dollie 

Gist. 

College Commencement. 

THURSDAY, JUNE 27, 9:00 a. m. 

Invocation. 

Chorus — Spring Song— Pinsiiti. 

Education Essential to Moral Progress — U. M. Mc- 

Caughey. 
Oliver Cromwell — I. M. Foster. 
a. Wiegenlied, Henseli ; b. Novelette, Godard—M.iss Lulu 

Browne. 
The Ethical Lessons of History — Cly'DE Brown. 
Triumphs of Science — T. A. Martin. 



Slumber Song, Schumann — Miss Florence Craig. 

Isis Unveiled — Amy Wiehr. 

The Government and the Individual — Thos. S. Hogan. 

The Last Idea of Von Weber, Cramer — Miss Anna 

Jones. 
Faraday — F. H. Super. 
The Arbiter of Truth— T. L. Young. 
Chorus — Send Out Thy Light — Gounod. 
Presentation of Diplomas, by Bishop Fallows. 



Some objection has from time to time 
been made by the Graduates of the Uni- 
versity to the short pedagogical course, on 
the ground that now and then those who 
have merely received certificates represent 
them as diplomas. While this is to be re- 
gretted, it can not properly be urged that 
the abuse of a thing should abolish its 
legitimate use. Considering the condi- 
tion of what is called " normal education" 
in our State, and indeed in other States, 
there is a legitimate place for a short 
course — legitimate in so far as it does not 
profess to be what it manifestly is not. A 
three years' course is not as good as one 
covering twice that length of time, and 
common honesty ought not to be slow to 
recognize the difference. But there is 
fraud in the effort to make one appear 
just as valuable as the other. An experi-. 
ence of some ten years with our shorter 
course has led us to believe that it is serv- 
ing a useful purpose. It has a certain 
completeness not provided in the courses 
that are intended to be continuative. 
Those, therefore, who for any reason can 
not go on, will find it to their advantage to 
round out their studies, in a measure at 
least, by completing our short course. 
And it will hardly be contended that all 
those whose ambition does not look be- 
yond the public school, except to the nar- 
rower needs of practical life, ought to be 
expected to spend four years in college, 
while we are not ready to make any state- 
ments as to the future, the present de- 
mand seems to make our duty plain to 
this extent at least, that if any modifica- 
tion of this course is called for, it should 
be in the direction of a more thorough 
mastery of the subjects it embraces. We 
shall be glad to discontinue it as soon as 
the nature of our educational conditions 
makes it advisable. We shall at least 
not degrade our degree of Bachelor of 
Pedagogy by giving it for less work than 
other degrees. 



12 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



For a number of years no more serious 
lack has been felt by the management of 
the University than that of a dormitory 
for ladies. It has sometimes been diffi- 
cult for both students and teachers to find 
suitable boarding places within a conven- 
ient distance of the college buildings. 
Fortunately this lack will no longer exist. 
The College Place Improvement Co. has 
offered to the Trustees to put up a well 
planned building, just outside of the col- 
lege campus that will accommodate from 
thirty to forty boarders, and the offer has 
been accepted. The building is in pro- 
gress of erection and will be pushed 
forward to completion as rapidly as possi- 
ble. It may not be quite ready for occu- 
pancy by the opening of the Fall Term, 
but the delay will not exceed a few weeks. 
By this arrangement it will be possible to 
provide furnished rooms with heat and 
light, together with board, for a sum 
ranging from 8150.00 to S200.00 per year. 
The hall will be built of pressed brick, 
three stories high, with two fronts, and 
conveniently arranged in every way. A 
competent steward will be put in charge, 
and the occupants may expect to be well 
cared for. 



At the recent commencement the Trus- 
tees of the University conferred the de- 
gree of Bachelor of Arts upon five young 
men, P. A. Bright, of Logan ; R. C. Super, 
son of President Sisper ; F. C. Schofield, 
of Fayetteville, Mo.; W. P. Collier, of 
Wheeling, West Va., and C. W. Cookson, 
of Shawnee ; the degree of Bachelor of 
Pedagogy on three young men, U. M. Mc- 
Caughey, of Triadelphia; Sebastian Thom- 
as, of Ashland, and Charles W. Cookson ; 
that of Bachelor of Science on four young 
men, Francis H. Super, son of President 
Super ; Thos. L. Young, of Daleton ; S. 
T. Muraj'ama, of Tokio, Japan, and T. A. 
Martin of Springfield ; that of Bachelor of 
Philosophy on three young men and one 
young lady, Clyde Brown, of McConnels- 
viUe ; T. S. Hogan, of Wellston ; I. M. 
Foster and Amy Wiehr, of Athens. The 
degree of Master of Science was con- 
ferred upon C. S. Coler, Principal of San- 
dusky High School ; Wilbur Colvin, of 
Harriman, Tenn.; William L. Skaggs, of 
Festus, Mo., and H. R. Holcomb, of Col- 
lege Springs, la. Mr. John A. Shott was 
made Master of Philosophy. Professors 
Holcomb and Shott, the latter Professor- 



elect in Carthage College, 111., were mem- 
bers of the class of '92. Dr. A. B Grif- 
fiths was made a Doctor of Science. Dr. 
Griffiths has a remarkable record as a Sci- 
entist. He is a member of many learned 
societies in the different European coun- 
tries. He has made several important 
discoveries in bacteriology and is regarded 
as the highest authority in the world on 
ptomaines. Among his numerous works 
are, "A Treatise on Manures," "The Di- 
seases of Crops," " Manures and Their 
Uses," " Researches on Physiology of 
the Invertebrata," " Our Certain Eocene 
Formations of Western Servia," etc. 

The degree of Doctor of Letters was 
conferred upon Elmer S. Cox, of Sidney, 
Ohio ; L. D. Bonebrake, Supt. of the Mt. 
Vernon Schools and a member of the State 
Board of Examiners, and A. M. Post, of 
the Supreme Court of Nebraska, were 
made honorary Masters of Arts. The Rev. 
A. B. Carver, of Yonkers, New York, and 
the Rev. F. S. Davis, of Zanesville, were 
made honorary Doctors of Divinity. The 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy was not 
conferred upon any one in course but Pro- 
fessor J. P. Patterson, of Colorado received 
\X. pro Iionore . One lady received the de- 
gree of Master of Philosophy on thesis, 
Miss Helena T. Goessman, daughter of 
Professor Goessman, of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College, Amherst. Three 
students received certificates showing that 
they had completed the shorter pedagog- 
ical course, and two that they had com- 
pleted the commercial course. 



One of the subjects discussed at the 
Ohio College Association in Sandusky 
was the amount of Greek that should be 
required for admission to the Freshman 
Class. The matter had been discussed at 
previous meetings and was again referred 
to a committee consisting of President 
Super and Prof. Phillips, of Marietta. 
This committee reported that the amount 
of Greek should consist of four books of 
the Anabasis, three books of Homer and 
some practice in the writing of simple 
Attic Prose. It was found that some of 
the colleges, among them the Ohio Uni- 
versity, already require this, but a consid- 
erable number require less. 'The commit- 
tee further recommended that these re- 
quirements for the classical course be made 
the condition for membership in the As- 
sociation. It was not deemed necessary 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



13 



to prescribe the time students should 
spend on this work, but it was suggested 
that for pupils who come up regularly 
through the High School, three years 
ought to be allowed. 

The report of the Committee was laid 
on the table without much discussion. 

It is well known that the so-called "Com- 
mittee of Twelve" were appointed to give 
effect to a resolution of the American Phi- 
lological Association, which reads as fol- 
lows : 

^^ Resolved, That, in the opinion of the 
American Philological Association, in any 
programme designed to prepare students 
for the classical course, not less than three 
years of instruction in Greek should be re- 
quired." 

This resolution is in accordance with 
the practice of most Eastern Colleges and 
many of those farther west. It is intended 
to apply to the classical course only, and 
is clearly in the interest of sound learning. 
We cannot help but regard the rejection 
of the recommendation by the Ohio Asso- 
ciation as a step in the wrong direction, or 
rather a failure to take a step in the right 
direction. Nevertheless, in view of the 
non-representative character of the asso- 
ciation and of the difficulty in enforcing 
any approximately strict conditions of 
membership the effect will probably be 
very slight. The colleges that have al- 
ready adopted the standard recommended 
will make no change, and those that have 
not hitherto done so would probably make 
none in any case. 

We are not among those who believe 
that the value of the higher education de- 
pends wholly or chiefly upon the amount 
of Greek it contains. There have been 
many thoroughly educated men and 
women who did not know Greek. At the 
same time we maintain that Greek con- 
tains a larger number of elements that en- 
ter into a liberal education than any other 
single subject. It is not necessary, it is 
true, to study the language to get out of 
the general subject its educational value. 
But the danger is that those who do not 
make the acquaintance of the subject 
through the medium of the language will 
not make it out at all. The student who 
merely learns the Grammar, if he learns it 
well, will be amply repaid for his labor. 
He will have required a knowledge of the 
noblest medium for the expression of 
thought ever invented by man. But 
Greek civilization has its lessons — may 



teach us moderns not only what to do, but 
also what to leave undone. It demon- 
strates how mere intellectual superiority 
can not save a nation. The great danger 
that is pretty certain to grow out of a dis- 
carding of Greek is that which threatens 
liberal education in general. It represents 
preeminently the culture-side of educa- 
tion, and shows the connection of the 
present with the remote past. It is the 
chief antidote against the purely and nar- 
rowly practical in education. We are the 
champions of Greek, not so much for the 
language itself as for the class of studies it 
represents in a wider sense. The more 
thoroughl}^ Greek is mastered the greater 
will be its value, and the larger the satis- 
faction it brings to the student. 



A TOLERABLY regular annual attend- 
ance at the very irregularly attended 
meetings of the Ohio College Association 
has made it pretty clear that however use- 
ful the Association may be, abstractly 
considered, its practical advantages are 
very small. The perso7inel of the different 
sessions at the same meeting is frequently 
so different as to make them virtually 
different bodies. The number present 
from each institution is usually so limited 
as to preclude the idea that it is in any 
sense a representative body. Unpremed- 
itated questions now and then come up 
for discussion and decision, yet nothing is 
decided after a vote has been taken. It' 
might thus easily happen that a vote taken 
the forenoon would be reversed by that of 
the afternoon. So little concert of action is 
there among the colleges of Ohio, and so 
variable are their standards, that they 
have almost nothing in common but the 
name and location within the same State. 
If there is any merit in running the higher 
education on the go-as-you-please plan, we 
of the Buckeye State have a fine oppor- 
tunity to test it. 



Professor Boughton attended the meet- 
ings of the National Educational Associa- 
tion at Denver ; President Super and Pro- 
fessors Chapin, Gordy and Atkinson were 
present at the State Teachers' Association 
in Sandusky. Professor Atkinson was on 
the programme of the College Section, 
and Professor Gordy on that of the Gen- 
eral Association, to discuss the normal 
school question. President Super read a 
I paper before the Modern Language Sec- 



14 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



tion on the letter "C," in the Romance 
Tongues. He also attended the meeting 
of the American Philological Association, 
which met this year in Cleveland. We 
believe this Association has met but twice 
in its history west of the Alleghenies. 
The attendance this year from Ohio, out- 
side of Cleveland, was very small. The 
next meeting will be held in Providence, 
R. I., beginning on the seventh of July, 
'96. 

We are particularly impressed — if this 
expression may be used of what does not 
impress — with the defective enunciation 
of many of the readers who presented 
papers at the Philological Association. It 
would seem that teachers who are in 
the habit of lecturing to their students 
would feel it incumbent upon themselves 
to present their matter in such a form as 
to make it fairly interesting. It requires no 
great degree of elocutionary training to 
make a reasonably good reader. But if 
the Cleveland meeting is an index, the 
lecture system in American colleges leaves 
much to be desired. The address of the 
President was delivered in such a low tone 
of voice and so monotonously • that wc 
venture the assertion that not half the 
audience in a small room understood one- 
fourth of what was said. Yet the reputa- 
tion of the speaker is a sufficient guaran- 
tee that it contains much well worth 
hearing. Other papers, and a good deal 
of the discussion, was in the same lifeless 
manner. If this is the usual way of doing 
we do not wonder that the meetings are 
thinly attended. It is a good deal more 
satisfactory to read the transactions, at a 
time and place of one's own choosing, than 
to go a long distance to listen to some of 
the papers when presented by their au- 
thors. 



During the past year the religious in- 
terests of the University have been well 
cared for both by the faculty and the 
students. A majority of the latter seemed 
to be impressed with the conviction that 
they were in a large measure responsible 
for whatever influence Christianity might 
have upon the thought and life of their 
fellows ; they accordingly strove to live 
and act in the light' of this responsibility. 
Dr. Powell gave a series of weekly talks 
on " Prophecy," that extended through a 
large part of the year. Several clergymen 
stationed in the vicinity of Athens deliv- 



ered Sunday lectures in the college 
chapel on topics connected with the Chris- 
tian life. Among these were Rev. F. S. 
Davis, of Zanesville ; Rev. Chas. B. Tay- 
lor, of McArthur ; the Rev. A. J. Hawk, 
of Wellston, and the Rev. Wm. E. Roe, of 
Marietta. The faculty hope to be able to 
provide a still more extensive course dur- 
ing the next year. 



During the past year the University 
has furnished instruction in the commer- 
cial branches and in stenography and 
typewriting. This has been done for the 
legitimate reason that there is a justi- 
fiable demand for persons who are profi- 
cient in these branches. The knowledge 
and training they bring with them 
are in their sphere as valuable as any 
other. That they have been abused does 
not invalidate this statement. They have 
no educational value when regarded solely 
as an end in themselves. Unfortunately 
this is the point of view from which they 
are popularly regarded. The fact is lost 
sight of that an ignorant man cannot 
even write a letter correctly, easily as the 
achievement seems to most people. He 
may write something that will convey his 
meaning, but that is the best that can be 
said of it. Our work in these branches 
will, while having a practical end in 
view, also keep before the student 
their educational value. The two should 
never be separated. After due delibera- 
tion the Faculty have therefore resolved 
to allow a reasonable amount of credit in 
the college course for this work, when sat- 
isfactorily performed. It is believed that 
in this way a business education, or the 
business element in any education, will 
gain a dignity that it does not otherwise 
possess. A business education is not 
something that any unsophisticated youth 
can acquire in a few weeks, or at most, in 
a few months ; it demands both knowledge 
and training. Even a business man may 
be, and he certainly ought to be, liberally 
educated. Both he and his business 
will be the better for it. We hope to con- 
tribute something to the formation of a 
more enlightened public opinion on this 
subject. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



15 



In accordance with the conditions of 
the bequest the Emerson Prize Poem 
Fund is again available this year. A 
number of verses in competition were sub- 
mitted to the Faculty. These were sent 
to Mr. Maurice Thompson, of Crawfords- 
ville, Ind., and Mrs. Annie Fields, of 
Boston, for adjudication. As it happened 
the judges do not quite agree, one putting 
second the production the other places 
first, and vice versa. The two first will 
therefore have to be placed in the hands 
of a third judge for final decision. The 
fact that there is a substantial agreement 
in the verdict already rendered, affords a 
strong presumption that it is just. It is 
proper to say that neither knew the con- 
clusion reached by the other. 



Personal Notes* 



Mr. I. M. Foster ('95), will enter the 
Harvard Law School next Fall. 

Mr. Thos. McFarland ('94), will teach 
next year in the State of Tennessee. 

Professor Bowman spent the greater 
part of his vacation at his home in Lynch- 
burg, Va. 

We hope to have another number of 
the BulUtin ready by the first of next 
December. 

Professors Conaway and Higley spent 
part of their vacation attending lectures 
at the Chicago University. 

Professor Hoover had charge during 
the summer, as usual, of the classes in 
Mathematics at Chautauqua. 

Mr. Clyde Brown ('95), gave instruc- 
tion in the Institutes of Morgan, Athens, 
Vinton and Jefferson counties. 

Mr. U. M. McCaughey ('95), has been 
chosen to take charge of the Fultonham 
Academy for the ensuing year. 

Miss Findley attended the National 
Convention of Elocutionists, held in Bos- 
ton, during the last days of June. 

Mr. John A. Shott ('92), for three 
years Professor of Natural Science in the 
Lebanon Valley College, has been elected 
to a similar position in the Carthage Col- 
lege, 111. 



Mr. Fred Sillery, an undergraduate, 
will be out of college next year to take 
charge of the schools of Cheshire. 

Professor Gordy conducted Institutes 
in Crawford Co., Pa., and in Morgan, 
Athens, Coshocton and Perry counties in 
Ohio. 

Miss Sarah Stinson, who spent the last 
year in Paris, in study, will resume charge 
of the Art Department at the opening of 
the term. 

Mr. C. W. Cookson ('95), who was for 
some time a student at Wooster Universi- 
ty, and for several years Superintendent of 
the schools of Shawnee, has been elected 
to a similar position at New Straitsville. 

Mr. L. E. Armstrong ('94), who taught 
last year in Tennessee, has been elected 
to the Principalship of the High School of 
Rawlins, Wyoming, and is already on his 
new ground ready for business. Mr. Arm- 
strong expects to make teaching his life 
work, and has made very thorough prepa- 
ration for his chosen profession. 

Mr. F. C. Schofield ('95), has been 
preaching in several Baptist churches in 
the vicinity of Athens during the present 
year. He has had a varied career as a 
student. His home is in Missouri ; he has 
been in attendance at the Denver Univer- 
sity, at Rochester University and here, 
and has made his way through college en- 
tirely by preaching and teaching. 

Mr. F. W. Bush ('92), after teaching 
three years very successfully in McCon- 
nelsville, has decided to change his occu- 
pation. He has purchased an interest in 
the Athens Messefiger a?id Herald, and will 
henceforth assist in its management. As 
Mr. Bush is an entertaining writer and an 
energetic man, he will no doubt contribute 
materially to the success of the paper. 
Perhaps an attachment for Athens, formed 
during the former years of his sojourn, 
contributed to his return. 

Mr. G. W. Reed ('88), who, since his 
graduation, has been teaching in Colorado 
and Utah, will soon return to his native 
State. He has been elected Principal of 
the McConnelsville High School, and ex- 
pects to assume the duties of his position 
at the opening of the next school year. 
That he will justify the action of the Board 
to which he owes his election, and satisfy 
his constituents, we do not doubt. 



16 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



Rev. C. W. Rishell (Ph. D., '92), who 
has recently been elected Professor of 
Historical Theology in the Boston Uni- 
versity School of Theology, will prepare 
the volume on "Christian Evidences" for 
the Crooks-Hurst Series. 

Nearly one hundred students were in 
attendance in the various departments of 
the O. U. during the summer term. The 
instructors were Professors Evans and 
Dunkle, Miss Stinson, and Mr. Martin. In 
addition to these, Professor Atkinson and 
Mr. Young conducted classes in Physics 
and Chemistry. It is probable that here- 
after all the departments of the College 
will be carried on during several weeks 
of July and August. 

In the current number of Popular Sci- 
ence, Professor Chapin begins a series of 
articles on Modern Disinfectants. 

C. M. Shepard spent six weeks at Cold 
Spring Harbor, in the study of Biology. 
He returned to Athens about the middle 
of August. 

Miss Kate Cranz received the degree 
of A. M. from Heidelberg University at 
Tiffin. 

President Super delivered two ad- 
dresses before the Gallia County Teach- 
ers' Association. 

Professor Bemis, whose dismissal 
from the University of Chicago has at- 
tracted such wide-spread attention, gave 
a course of lectures before the O. U. sev- 
eral years ago. At the same time he in- 
vestigated a Hocking Valley strike which 
was then in progress and published a 
monograph upon it. 

Miss Mabel K. Brown, one of our 
instructors, is spending the summer 
months in France. She will return about 
the 10th of September. 

Miss King passed most of her vacation 
at her home in Tennessee. 

Dr. William Waddle, of Chillicothe, 
for a quarter of a century a trustee of the 
O. U., died on the 23d of August, at the 
age of eighty-four. He resigned his 
trusteeship a few years ago on account of 
increasing infirmities. He was, when in 
his prime, one of the leading men of this 
section of the State. 



OHIO 



UNIVERSITY, 



ATHBNS. 



This Institution provides courses lead- 
ing to the degree of 

Bachelor of Art. 
Bachelor of Pedagogy. 
Bachelor of Philosophy. 
Bachelor of Science. 

At the close of the Freshman 
year much of the work is elective. 

There is also a thorough course 

in Music. 

In addition to the courses lead- 
ing to a degree, instruction is given 
in Electrical Engineering, Prepara- 
tory Medical work, Stenography 
and Type-Writing, Commercial 
Branches, etc. 



The regular tuition is Thirt}' Dol- 
lars per year. 

There is a summer term every 
3'ear during the month of July and 
part of August. 



Send for a Catalogue to the President. 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



17 



Book Notices* 

"Elements of Plane Geometry," by 
John Macnie, in White's Series of Mathe- 
matics. 

The same firm has also sent us "White's 
Outline Studies in the History of the 
United States." These "Studies" are in- 
tended to supplement the standard school 
histories by directing attention to the dif- 
ferent phases entering into the civilization 
that was developed on the North Ameri- 
can continent. A long list of works is 
given, from which the answers to the va- 
rious questions are to be culled. .While 
the book is a small one, the pupil who 
makes his way through it will acquire a 
most competent knowledge of the history 
of his country, taking the term history in 
its broadest sense. Its use will be an 
effectual antidote against the mischievous 
custom of teaching and studying history 
from a single text-book. 

"School Interests and Duties," by R. 
M. King. The object of this book is a 
wholesome one, viz., namely to show the 
general public that it is unwise to throw 
the whole responsibility for the schools 
upon the teacher. While it is true 
to some extent that the school is as 
the teacher, it is true in a wider sense that 
the school is as the community. There 
are many places in this country where 
the best teacher would be entirely out of 
his place because of an unsympathetic 
environment. How often has experience 
shown this to be the case? It is the time- 
server who succeeds and the honest man 
who fails. The man who gets along 
smoothly is generally the one who is care- 
ful not to arouse the people out of their 
familiar habits of thought and who is 
always ready to make his patrons believe 
they are wiser than other people. There 
are communities in which it is next to im- 
possible to make the schools good except 
by a process so slow that the official life 
of a teacher is far too short to compass it. 
There are communities so far behind the 
times that pedagogical work of a high 
order among them is utterly out of the 
question. The misfortune is that the 
people who ought to read this book will 
not do so. 



"The Vicar of Wakefield, with an Intro- 
duction." We are glad to see this immor- 
tal story, equally the delight of old and 
young, issued in a cheap and yet substan- 
tial form. 

A SERIES of Monographs, prepared un- 
der the auspices of the National Geo- 
graphic Society. The following have been 
issued : 

" General Physiographic Processes." 

" General Physiographic Features." 

" Physiographic Regions of the United 
States." 

" Beaches and Tidal Marshes of the At- 
lantic Coast." 

" Present and Extinct Lakes of Ne- 
vada." 

"The Northern Appalachians." 

" Psychology in Education," by R. N. 
Roark. Another Psychology ! How 
great is the number in our day of those 
who flatter themselves that they can add 
something to this intricate subject or ar- 
range its well known data in a more in- 
teresting way. A somewhat hasty exam- 
ination of the book before us hasimpressed 
us rather favorably. While it contains a 
good many things that one would not ex- 
pect to find in a text-book on psychology, 
they are not for that reason necessarily 
out of place. There are many teachers 
who could read it with profit. But the 
persons who are competent to write a 
Psychology from the standpoint of the 
Science, as it is to-day, can be counted on 
the fingers of one hand. 

The American Book Company have 
just issued a new "Webster's Academic 
Dictionary," abridged from the "Interna- 
tional Webster." It is preeminently what 
it professes to be, " a comprehensive dic- 
tionary at a small cost." The type, though 
small, is very clear. There are two col- 
umns to the page, and an abundance of 
illustrations. The several appendices con- 
tain a pronouncing vocabulary of Biblical, 
Classical, Mythological, Historical and 
Geographical proper names ; quotations, 
words, phrases, etc., from various lan- 
guages; abbreviations used in writing and 
printing ; a concise account of the chief 
deities, heroes, etc., in the Greek and Ro- 
man Mythologies, etc. Like all the books 
issued by this house it is substantially 
bound. 



18 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 



H. A. GuERBER has added to his 
" Myths of Greece and Rome" a volume 
of "Myths of Northern Lands." The 
author relates in his interesting way the 
Germanic legends concerning the Begin- 
ning of all Things, Oden, Thor, the 
Valkyrs, the Elves, etc. We do not know 
any other book in English covering the 
same ground that is so attractively written 
as this. It is fully illustrated, and is 
supplied with a glossary and index. 



THE HUDSON SCHOOL . . 



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rurniture. 

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and Students of Geography 

National 

GEOGRAPHIC MDNOGRAPHS 

on the Physical Features 
of the Earth's Surface. 
Published monthly e.\cept 
in July and August. 

Now Ready 

Monograph No. i, on 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC PROCESSES 

BY 
JOHN W. POWELL, 

Late Director U. S. Geological Survey. 



Annual Subscription — ten Mono- 
graphs—payable in advance, $1.5° 

Annual Subscription — five copies 
to one address - payable in ad- 
vance, ...... 5.00 

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. • . THE . • . 

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AUGUST ISSUES. 



Stories for Children. (Eclectic School Readings.) 

First Reader Grade. By MRS. Chas. A. LANE. 12mo, cloth, 104 pages; 
profuse illustrations 25 cents. 

Fairy Stories and Fables. (Eclectic School Readings.) 

Second Reader Grade. Retold by James Baldwin. 12mo, cloth, 176 

pages ; profuse illustrations 35 cents. 

Old Greek Stories. (Eclectic School Readings.) 

Third Reader Grade. By JAMES BALDWIN. 12mo, cloth, 208 pages; 
numerous illustrations 45 cents. 

Patriotic Citizenship. 

By THOMAS J. MORGAN, LL. D., ex-United States Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs ; Member of the National Council of Education, etc. 12mo, 
cloth, with the American flag in colors, 368 pages ;$1.00 

Elementary Lessons in Zoology. 

A guide in studying animal life and structure in field and laboratory. 
By James G. Needham, M. S., Instructor in Zoology, Knox College, 
Galesburg, 111. 12mo, cloth, 302 pages and numerous illustrations ■ 

First Year in French. 

By L. C. Syms. Especially designed for the use of children, and for 
schools desiring an introduction to French literature in the hands of pupils 
in the grammar grades, in accordance with the recommendations of the 
Committee of Ten. 12mo, cloth, 128 pages 50 cents. 

The Academic French Course. 

In accordance with the latest grammatical rules adopted by the French 
Academy. Second year. By ANTOINE MUZZARELLI. 12mo, cloth, 342 
pages $1.00 

Germania Texts No. 2. 

Gervinus on Goethe und Schiller ; Lessing und Herder. Paper, thin, 

16mo, 22 pages 10 cents. 

Bilder aus der Deutchen Litteratur. 

By J. Keller, Professor of German Language and Literature in the 
Normal College of New York. 12mo, cloth, 225 pages 75 cents. 



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postpaid, 0)1 receipt of the price. Special terms for introduction. 
Correspondence is cordially invited and will have prompt attention. 



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20 



OHIO UNIVERSITY BULLETIN. 




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